In the twentieth century the grounds of Izmalkovo were chosen for the first Soviet creative residency. It is believed that writer and Soviet icon Maxim Gorky, the first chairman of the Literary Fund, suggested to Stalin that a dacha settlement be built at the village of Peredelkino. The houses were distributed on a rental basis so that the privilege could be withdrawn any time the tenant fell into disgrace.
Many of the first residents became victims of political repressions. Peredelkino was the last address of Isaac Babel, Vladimir Zazubrin, Artyom Vesyoly, Bruno Jasieński, Lev Kamenev, among others. Kamenev's house became the first Dom Tvorchestva.